Transformation theory of translation
The basis of the transformation theory of translation is the activity of an interpreter, which consists in converting or transforming the source text into a translated (output) text. The emergence of this theory with the thoughts of linguistic teaching, which many people know as “transformational grammar.” She explores the rules for creating syntactic structures that can be characterized as a set of lexemes and logical-syntactic links.
Any language has its own grammar, which has no analogues and coincidences. The value of structures that do not reach during the translation process is compensated by transformation. Transformational grammar defines a number of linguistic structures and calls them nuclear, and the remaining structures, which are called “transforms”, deduce from the number of nuclear or vice versa introduces it. More often than not, the nuclear structure reflects the “action-action” relationship.
In translation theory, the principles of transformational grammar are reflected in two directions. The whole process of the translation text formation can be interpreted as the transformation of units and structures of the source text into units and structures of the output text, namely translation occurs as interlingual transformation – this is the first direction. Units of the source text are represented by language structures, from which, in the translation process, the corresponding structure of the output text will be obtained. The essence of the translation process is to select the language units of the output text, which fall into one transformation-translation range with the units of the original. This theoretical model makes it possible to see the most probable correspondences or methods of translation. The second direction shows a number of periods of the translation process in the definitions of transformation. There is a theory that nuclear structures are the same in all languages and it is possible to combine the entire variety of linguistic forms of the source and target languages into a relatively small number of structures. Based on the assumption that there is a complete equivalence between the source and target languages, the translation at the level of these structures will lead to an elementary replacement of the nuclear language structures of the source material, to the nuclear structures of the output. Even if the language structures of the two languages are not the same, this theory can be applied, because any proposals can be transformed into similar structures in another language.
It is interesting that the transformation theory does not explain the facts of situational equivalence, it is applicable only to the comparison of the grammatical structures of the source and target languages.
In order to understand why difficulties arise in the translation process, predetermined by the peculiarities of the language being studied, one must remember and understand what a grammar is. Grammar – the external structure of the language, this formation of words, syntax and morphology, which, together with phonetics and vocabulary, makes up the general structure of the language.
A large number of translators and translation agency when working on tests, face the morphological features of the language they are interested in. Morphology studies the parts of speech of their category and form of words and is a section of grammar.
All words can be divided into parts of speech, some are independent parts of speech and can be parts of sentences. For example, in English, these parts of speech are distinguished:
Noun, adjective, numeral, pronoun, verb and adverb are all independent parts of speech. Prepositions and conjunctions are service parts of speech that demonstrate individual relations between members of a sentence or sentences, and they are not included in sentences. Prepositions and conjunctions cause some difficulties in the translation. Interjections, have no relation either to independent parts of speech, or to the service parts of speech, and differ in their meaning and functions. In order to avoid difficulties in translating interjections, it is necessary to resort to the help of thematic directories and dictionaries. It must be remembered that different parts of speech in different languages have a huge number of categorical and other features that can cause a considerable number of difficulties in the translation process.
A thorough knowledge and understanding of how to correctly translate a particular part of speech will help an interpreter avoid difficulties in the translation process and perform his work qualitatively. The study of morphological features will benefit both a beginner and a professional translator.