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English is an international language. It is a part of the German group of the Indo-European family and is the official language (or one of the official languages) in many countries, for example, in Great Britain, USA, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Ireland, Nigeria, and many African countries. It’s interesting, that the longest English word without vowels is rhythms.
Spanish (Españo) belongs to the advanced group of languages of world importance. About 500 million people speak this language. There are about 150 million spanish-speaking users on the Internet, that is, this language is the third most popular on the Internet and the second most common on Facebook (after English). Native speakers often use “castillano”, which means Castilian, because the Spanish language originated in the kingdom of Castile.
Italian language (italiano, lingua italiana) is close to the Latin language, the common progenitor of all Romance languages. Italians are very sociable and will gladly help, provided, that you will (try) to speak with them in Italian! It’s interesting, that in Italian, the greatest number of words describing food – so much Italians love it.
German (Deutsch) is one of the official and working languages at UN meetings. It is the native language for a large number of people in Europe. Knowledge of the German language provides access to a lot of information. In the field of various scientific publications, Germany ranks second in the world, besides being a trading partner for many countries.
The Dutch (de Nederlandse taal) began to form approximately in the 5th century AD. The oldest of the texts found to date, written in one of the old dialects of this language, dates back to the year 1100. In English, de Nederlandse taal will be Dutch. Because of this, other interpreters are often confused, translating this word as “Danish“.
Polish (język polski, polszczyzna) is one of the largest Slavic languages and the largest Western Slavic language by the number of speakers. It turns out that the Polish language was influenced by the French in Napoleon’s time. Words that are often called “translator’s false friends” can confuse those who wish to learn Polish. For example, the word “dywan” is translated not as “sofa”, but as “carpet”, “uroda” means “beauty”, zapomnieć – forget, dworzec – railway station, etc.
Portuguese (língua portuguesa) is one of the fastest growing European languages in the world. Although many Portuguese words have Latin roots, a large number of words have also been borrowed from Arabic, French, Italian. Speakers in Portuguese can be combined into the generic term “Luzofones” named after the Roman province of Lusitania.
Slovak (slovenská reč) – along with Czech, Polish and Serbian, it belongs to the West Slavic languages. In the Slovak language, there are many diacritical signs that change the pronunciation and meaning of letters. For example, “c” = “ts”, but “č” = “ch”, or “о” = “о”, but “ô” = “yо”.
Slovene (slovenščina) – belongs to the western branch of the South Slavic languages. It is the only Slavic language in which the dual number is preserved.
French (French le français, la langue française) refers to the Romance group of the Indo-European family. France is famous for the quality of its high technologies, so French is an important language of technology and business in the world. It’s interesting, that more than 60 thousand English words are of French origin.
Azerbaijan (azərbaycan dili) is one of the old-written Turkic languages, traditionally belonging to the south-western (Oguz) group of the Turkic branch of the Altaic language family. At first this language was called Tatar, including the Turkic languages as a group. In the XIX century, this language was called “Aderbidzhan”. At the end of the 20th century, there were attempts to rename the Azerbaijani into the Turkic one.
The Armenian language (հայերէն, հայերեն) refers to the Indo-European family of languages and is the official language of the Republic of Armenia, as well as Nagorno-Karabakh. The written language is based on the original Armenian alphabet. Currently, more than 25 thousand monuments of Armenian writing have been preserved during the period from the 5th to the 18th century. Several thousand manuscripts in the Armenian language are contained in the Yerevan repository of manuscripts.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is a group of Eastern Slavic languages. Distributed on the territory of Belarus, as well as in the border regions of Lithuania, Poland, Russia and Ukraine. One of the distinguishing features of the Belarusian is the letter Ўў (short or “нескладовае”). This letter became a kind of symbol of the Belarusian language (a monument was erected in Polotsk in 2003).
The Hungarian (Magyar) is one of the few non-European languages of modern Europe with a significant number of speakers. Hungarian is one of the agglutinative languages, which means, it allows you to build very long words. The longest word is Megszentségteleníthetetlenségeskedéseitekért, which can be translated roughly as “because of your constant desire to be undefiled”.
Georgian (ქართული ენა qartuli ena) is the official language of Georgia, the literary and national language of the Georgian nation. In the Georgian language there is no separation between the male and female clan.
Kazakh (қазақ тілі) is one of the Turkic languages. The Kazakh alphabet succumbed to many changes throughout history. Initially, the Kazakhs were characterized by runic alphabet (24 letters and a sign). Then, under Arab-Muslim influence, Kazakhstan switched to Arabic. From years 1929 to 1940 residents of the country used Latin graphics, and then began to write in Cyrillic.
Romanian (Limba română) refers to the Balkan-Roman subgroup of the Eastern Romance group of the Indo-European family of languages. The basis of the Romanian language was the spoken Latin language of the colonists. The word “Romanians” is derived from “romanus”, which means “Roman citizen”.
The Tajik language (забо́ни тоҷикӣ) was previously called the “Tajik dialect of the Persian language”. At first, the inhabitants of Tajikistan used Arabic script for writing, but from the beginning of the 20th century they switched to the Latin alphabet, and from 1939 to the Cyrillic alphabet.
Turkmen (türkmen dili) – belongs to the group of Turkic languages. It is used on the territory of Turkmenistan, Iran, Afghanistan, Turkey, Iraq, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, etc.
The Baltic States
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a very laconic language! The whole sentence can replaced by several short words. Latvian is the only state language of Latvia, and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union.
Lithuanian language (lietùvių kalbà) – the founder of the literary Lithuanian language is Martin Mazhvidas, who published the first Lithuanian book – the Lutheran Catechism (1547). This is one of the most archaic among the living Indo-European languages. In the Lithuanian language there is almost no abuse. So, for example, one of the most rude words is rupūžė, which translates as “toad”. If Lithuanians want to properly swear, they use English words and expressions.
The Estonian language (eesti keel) belongs to the Baltic-Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric family of languages. Surprisingly, in Estonian, there are 3 kinds of vowels, namely short, long and superlong. Changing one vowel in a word, you can completely change its meaning.
Danish (dansk) – belongs to the group of Scandinavian languages. In Danish there are a large number of vowel sounds. In some languages there are only three or four vowels, while in Danish there are 13.
Norwegian (norsk) is the language of the German branch of the Scandinavian subgroup, spoken in Norway. There are two official forms of the Norwegian language – Bokmal (bokmål, literally “book speech”) and Nynorsk or Nynoshk (“nynorsk” – “New Norwegian”). In this case, Bokmal is much more common, this dialect is studied by foreigners.
The Finnish language (suomi) belongs to the Baltic-Finnic subgroup of the Finno-Ugric languages. In Finnish, vowel letters are used almost in the same amount as consonants, as a result, the Finnish language is exceptionally melodic. There is a legend according to which Tolkien took Finnish as a basis of the Elvish language he created.
Swedish (svenska) is unofficially divided into two types: simple and complicated. In Swedish, there is a pronoun Ni (You), but regardless of the age or status, when applying, Swedes always use Du (you) (exception – members of the Royal Family).
Arabic (اللغة العربية) – refers to the Semitic branch of the Afrasian family of languages. The Arabs write from right to left, but the numbers are written from left to right. Wish a good morning can be in at least seven different ways, depending on the situation and the degree of proximity.
Hebrew (עִבְרִית) is the traditional and sacred language of Judaism. The main reason for the survival of Hebrew, which in colloquial speech supplanted other language in the period from 200 to 400 AD, was that it remained the language of the sacred texts of Judaism.
Chinese (汉语) was originally the language of the main ethnic group of China – the Han people (hanyu). The normative Chinese language used by the bearers of different dialects when communicating with one another is “putonghua” (pǔtōnghuà), based on the norms of the Beijing dialect. In Western countries it is called “mandarin” (standard mandarin).
Korean (한국어) – is considered one of the most polite in the world. Modern Korean names usually consist of three syllables. In this case, the first syllable refers to the surname, and the other two to the personal name. In this case, most names do not have any signs that indicate the gender. It is important to note that appeal by name is allowed only between close relatives or friends.
Mongolian (Монгол хэл) – the language of the Mongols, the main population of Mongolia, as well as Inner Mongolia and individual groups living in different provinces of the PRC. The number of speakers in the Mongolian language – about 3 million people. Refers to the Mongolian group of languages.
Thai (ภาษา ไทย) – is the official language of Thailand. In Thai, the letter does not contain spaces between words – only between sentences. There are no commas, dots, semicolons, dashes, colons in Thai too, among the punctuation marks – only inverted commas and parentheses.
Turkish (Türk dili) belongs to the southwestern subgroup of the Turkic languages. It is believed that the literary Turkish language began to take shape in the XV century, based on the dialects of the inhabitants of the Anatolian peninsula. Subsequently, it appeared a huge number of borrowings from the Arab and Persian.
Japanese (日本語) – nihongo. The sound of the Japanese language can be quite unusual for the Slavic ear. One of the reasons for this is that there are practically no separate consonant sounds in the nihongo, syllables are used instead. Along with hieroglyphic writing, in the Japanese language there are as many as two alphabets – hiragana and katakana. Nevertheless, hieroglyphs (kanji) till nowadays are the main way of writing.