Translation of instructions in the construction field
Over the past decade, each industry is developing very rapidly. Qualitative and accurate translation is necessary for both companies and ordinary employees who need to translate instructions for daily work. Consider the translation of instructions based on the construction industry.
On the basis of goals and plans, the translation of the following types of texts is necessary in the construction industry:
1) Organizational part. Contracts, correspondence to contractors and monitoring bodies, documentation of the HR department (instructions for the work schedule, summaries, notes), official notifications and management orders; feasibility studies.
2) Technical part. Specifications, drawings, rules and descriptions of the operating procedure, method operators, operating manuals of monitoring instruments, installation of heating systems, ventilation, air-conditioning.
3) Material support. Orders for delivery, descriptions of products and materials, including safety data sheets, inspector reports, checklists and test plans and defective statements.
4) Health and safety. Materials for courses and instruction on personnel, rules and regulations, safety rules; projects on the assessment of environmental impact, the description of actions to preserve the environment.
Therefore, the special language of the construction sphere is a verbal language using non-verbal means (pictures, drawings, schemes, etc.); language with a constant, traditional tendency towards its internationalization, which fulfills epistemological, cognitive and communicative functions.
As part of the description of the translation process, the translation transformation is considered a translation method that the translator can use to translate various original texts when the dictionary equivalents are missing or cannot be used in a specific context. Depending on the symbol of the modules of the source language, which are considered initial in the transformations, the translation transformations are divided into lexical and grammatical. In addition, there are complex lexical and grammatical transformations, where the transformations either touch the lexical and grammatical modules of the original at the same time, or they are equal to each other, i.e. perform a transition from lexical modules to grammatical and in reverse order.
The main types of lexical transformations used in the translation process include the following translation methods: writing and transliteration, tracing, lexical-semantic substitutions (specification, generalization, modulation).
Recording and transliteration are methods of translating the lexical module of the original by reconstructing its form by means of the letters of the translated text. Record – the reproduction of the sound form of the external word, and transliteration – the reproduction of the graphic form (alphabetic structure). The most popular method in modern translation practice is a record with preservation of some elements of transliteration. Since the phonetic and graphical systems of languages differ significantly from each other, the transmission of the source language’s word form in the output language is always fairly standard and approximate: the designer is a designer, the tender is a tender. Basically the most widespread element of transliteration in the Anglo-Russian translation is the transliteration of some hard-to-pronounce consonants and reduced vowels.
Kalka – a way of translating the lexical module of the original by replacing its components – morphemes or words (in the case of cliches) – with their lexical equivalents in the target language. The essence of the tracing paper is to create a new word or phrase in the output language, copying the structure of the initial lexical module.
Lexical-semantic substitutions are methods of translating lexical modules of the original text using output language modules in translation, whose values do not coincide with the values of the initial modules, but can be derived from them by means of a certain type of logical transformations. The main types of such substitutions are specification, generalization and modulation (semantic development) of the value of the initial module.
Specification – the replacement of a word or phrase in the source text, which has a broader meaning of figural logic with a word or a phrase in the output language with a narrower meaning.
Generalization is the replacement of the module of the source language, which has a narrower meaning with the module of the output language with a wider meaning, i.e. conversion to the specification. Equivalent created expresses, a universal concept, including the initial subconscious.
Modulation or semantic development is the replacement of a word or phrase in the source language with a module in the output language, the value of which is logically deduced from the initial value of the module. Most often, the values of correlated words in the original and translation seem to be connected by cause-and-effect relations.
In most cases, translators use such lexical transformations to achieve a higher degree of equivalence of highly specialized texts of construction topics.