Lexical features of translation of texts on construction
The need for professional translation in the modern world is evident in all spheres of life, and construction is no exception. High-quality translation of texts on construction is necessary for owners of construction companies and for ordinary people who want to read the competent translation of technical documentation. Interpretation is even more in demand in the construction industry. Often, interpretation is necessary during business negotiations, with it, the process of signing contracts becomes much easier.
In our time, the translation of construction texts is becoming increasingly demanded due to the economic development and attractiveness of foreign investors in the field of construction. Technical translators working in various foreign companies, due to increasing amounts of translations, are forced to solve the various problems arising while translating. These difficulties are caused by the fact that the level of knowledge in this topic does not match the desired one, especially the lexical features of the construction text translation have not been studied enough. In this respect, studying the features of the construction text translation, because one of the types of informative translation has a current value.
The real activity of translation is performed by translators in different conditions. Translated texts are different in subjects, language, genre; translations are made in written or oral forms. There are different requirements for translators regarding the accuracy, completeness of the translation, etc. Certain types of translation require special knowledge and skills from an interpreter.
In the field of construction, pragmatic texts (focused on content) of scientific and technical and official styles are used. Within each functional style, there are some language features that significantly affect the process and result of the translation.
For example, lexical and grammatical features of scientific and technical materials and, first of all, terminology and a special dictionary in the scientific and technical style. The style of business documents has specific communication goals common to these style laws and language features. First and foremost, certain terminology and phraseology prevail, and a characteristic feature is the academicism of means of expression, which speeds up the process of forming phraseological units that are typical for this style. The academism of means of expression underlies another feature of official documents, i.e. presence of a significant number of archaic words and expressions.
The following features of scientific and technical texts distinguish the translation in the field of construction:
1) use of scientific and technical terminology and the so-called special vocabulary;
2) words and phrases that do not have the property of a term to define concepts and objects in a certain area, but are used almost exclusively in this area of communication, selected by a narrow circle of experts, ordinary for them, allowing them not to think about the way of expressing thoughts and concentrate on the topic;
3) prevalence of cliches;
4) not only the terminological and special vocabulary is used in scientific and technical materials. There are many common words used in any functional style. Translating such lexical units, the translator of scientific and technical literature faces the same difficulties and applies the same methods to their overcoming as translators working in other fields.
In the broadest sense of the word “construction” – a kind of human activity, aimed at creating buildings, technical structures (bridges, roads). In our time, construction represents a difficult and multifaceted process combining technical, economic, legal, and social aspects. The main stages of construction are the allocation of land, development, coordination of the project, the process of building the building, putting it into operation. Experts who participate in the development and implementation of construction projects must create effective mechanisms for planning, budgeting, document circulation, timely supply of building materials, logistics, safety at work, etc. In addition, it is necessary for them to take into account the environmental consequences of the work.
Thus, lexical transformations are applied to achieve a higher degree of equivalence in the translation of texts on construction. The peculiarities of lexical transformations in the translation of texts on construction topics are caused by the stylistic genre functions of such texts that belong to the informative text category and reflect the specifics of scientific, technical and official styles.