Analysis of the surface level of the model of changes in translation
This part makes changes that occur at the level of the surface of structural analysis from the point of view of four theoretical categories, namely, the unit, structure, class and system that form the basis for the syntactic and functional description of the data.
In addition to these species, the categorical part of the syntactic component uses some other language-specific varieties, called ‘descriptive’ categories. They are used to talk about the grammar of a particular language and are considered theoretical cases. Consequently, the abstract theoretical category of the ‘unit’ can include in a specific language such cases as a sentence, an item, a group, etc. The description of these categories in one language should be made in terms characteristic of that language, and not from the point of view of any other universal design. This is a very significant procedural precaution, which every translator must bear in mind at the translation bureau. However, one could think about the problem of comparison at a later stage, making such descriptions.
One solution to this problem comes from the fact that these categories are just parts of some other universal that can be used as a permanent enterprise in comparison. Other equally strong solution comes from the hypothesis of language universality, despite their obvious differences, natural languages show some syntactic and semantic similarities at various levels of abstraction. Relationship among themselves descriptive categories and their relationship with the data are expressed through three interrelated scales, namely: “rank”, “exponential” and “delicacy”. Of these, the first and second scales are used in the existing model. In interlingual scale range allows for ranks shifts caused by replacing the source language unit in the particular position on the scale degree in language translation unit in a lower or higher position. The scale of the exponent, on the other hand, is the scale of implementation. This refers to the relationship between systems and structures on the one hand, and the relationship between structures and formal elements of grammar, on the other. Consequently, terms from systems are realized by structures, and the elements of these structures are understood by formal elements. In translation, some changes occur in the implementation of the systems of the source language and structures of the target language.
The following observations regarding the analysis of frank and secret micro-lingual change units are made with their representation in the form of a graphic model
- Vertically, frank micro changes can occur either upward or downward on a scale of ranks. From this it follows that a vertical arrow: upward changes occur when a unit of the original language is replaced by a higher one in the discharge unit of the translation language, whereas down changes occur when the unit of the source language is replaced with a lower one in the discharge by the translation language unit. On the other hand, the declining changes are an unmarked type. Changes in this direction are more likely than in the opposite direction. Usually, when searching for an appropriate replacement, the direction of the translator, arbitrarily or necessarily, down the rank scale of the target language, until it reaches the lowest one in the discharge unit. Only, when these lower units in the discharge fail, the translator looks up the grade scales.
- Explicit deviations of micro levels should be considered optional, unless it is dictated by any structural factors. In other words, the translator must decide – in the light of his own translation standards – to keep the same rating of the source language unit or move up or down the rank in the target language. When all factors are the same, a translation with the same unit rank provides the maximum degree of structural accuracy. Otherwise, the translator must search for the translation language unit closest in rank to the unit of the source language.
- Frank micro changes of a unit are by no means limited to the rank of the sentence. They can occur at any point of the scale, therefore, the shadow square is given opposite each movement.
- Horizontally, open micro changes are taken into account, motivated by different implementations of the same translation language. These changes are more likely to be mandatory, not additional. For example, this is a typical case in translation between English and Arabic, because the internal systems of these languages are basically different.
Before proceeding to discuss the microanalysis of changes in other categories, it is important to emphasize the functionality of the micro synthesis analysis of the shifts. In addition to the structural nature of these units, their grammatical meaning, that is, their functions should also be taken into account when the microanalysis of the unit of changes is performed.