Stylistic component in the analysis of the translation model
Style is the last area that you need to deal with at the macro level of the translation model analysis. Therefore, you need to consider certain overall style characteristics that contribute to the occurrence of changes in different levels of text in the target language. In this case, do not limit the term ‘stylistic’ to its literary concept. Instead, remember that style is the property of all texts. All translators of a translation agency should remember that literary texts show some stylistic characteristics more clearly than non-literary ones. Each language has its own stylistic agreements that can differ from other languages, which can lead to stylistic changes when two languages are associated with the function of these conventions and their formal carriers, namely their linguistic implementations. When two or more expressions in the target language are available to the translator to express the same meaning of the source language, stylistic changes become possible. Obviously, the role of content here should serve as a starting point for analyzing change. Another problem related to the analysis of stylistic changes is the problem of defining styles. The need for a satisfactory definition of the word ‘style’ would help get rid of the complexities of literary criticism. In other words, we need to limit this term to allow for the measurement of stylistic shifts in the translated text, regardless of their type. This means that this term should be defined in purely linguistic terms, rather than defining it as a literary concept.
Here, it is necessary to emphasize in an overwhelming majority the additional nature of stylistic changes. In other words, the target language is a structural alternative means of expressing a single message in the source language at different levels of language use.
Interlingually, stylistic changes can be explained by referring to the same difference between the mandatory and non-mandatory application of language rules. A mandatory rule in one language could be additional in the other. Accordingly, the task of the translator is to analyze the typical strategies of the original author in using additional transformations and various types of transformation operations to compare them with the translated material.
In fact, the second important point relates to the multitude of consequences associated with the term ‘style’. The definition of style implies that words and other linguistic units on the page may differ or differ from each other without a corresponding difference. One of the significant consequences of this statement is that it is necessary to distinguish between the form of the message and its content.
In the translation of a message from one language to another – the content should be stored at any level. Its form, except for special cases, such as poetry, is mostly secondary, since in each language the rules for linking content are very complex, arbitrary and variable. Of course, if by coincidence, it is possible to convey the same content in the receptor language in a form that resembles the shape of the source, the better, keeping the shape when possible, but more often it should be transmitted accurately to preserve the content. Excessive effort while maintaining the shape inevitably leads to a serious loss or distortion of the message.
The significance of the above statement is obvious: stylistic changes are expected when the translator tries to maintain a balance between the form and content of the message, on the one hand, and its propensity to reflect the character, on the other hand.
Although some scholars tend to restrict the criterion of form by literary texts, another position here is that “there is probably no absolute formal distinction between literature and non-literature forms: none of these two categories is formally homogeneous” (Fowler, 1966). However, this generalization should not be misconstrued in order to deny the existence of literature. Instead, it is understood as a working hypothesis, necessary for analyzing stylistic changes in the linguistic structure. To put it more clearly, all examples of language use demonstrate a linguistic form that is susceptible to empirical research. In addition, there is no difference if the designation “literature” is used for a certain class of constructions, since members of this class demonstrate formal differences among themselves, and also in comparison with other members outside this class. In short, “there is no constant or set of constants that distinguish all members of the class “literature” from members of the class “non-literature”. Even when we agree on the importance of form to literature, it does not simplify the fact that linguistic forms exist and must be accepted as an essential area of investigation in all other examples of linguistic use.
After a detailed consideration of the question, it can be concluded that stylistic changes are the term of coverage used to denote the diversity of macro-formal modifications of the source text in the target language. In addition, the emergence of these changes can only be predicted by referring to the rhetorical and stylistic conventions of each language in question in addition to the translator’s preference, his/her choice and ability.
Before proceeding to the analysis of stylistic changes, it should be mentioned that the contribution of the form to the meaning of the text varies according to the type of text. The sum of stylistic changes varies accordingly. In some genres, for example, prose, poetry, religious texts, etc., the form has a coherent and aesthetic function that conveys the creative desire of the author, and betrays the text a certain form.