The role of the translator in the analysis of the translation model
Among all the factors affecting the emergence of stylistic changes, the role of the translator is the most recognizable factor. Most of the additional changes, that occur in the translation, can be attributed to the differences between the original writer and the translator as two text producers. However, the effects of these differences are usually suppressed by the literary norms of the target language and the norms of the translation activity itself. But more important is the attitude of the translator to this text. This relationship can be described as follows: the only thing of the translator is to “identify himself” with the original, this will lead to a transparent translation. The translator also has the right to organically differ and to be independent, while independence is pursued for the sake of originals, techniques and applications. Thus, changes do not occur, because the translator wants to “change” the work, but because he/she seeks to reproduce it as sincerely as possible and to understand it in its totality.
In the language sphere there are many factors that affect the translator’s acceptance of a particular style in providing a specific text to another language. One of these factors is literary norms, which can differ in the source and target languages. It puts the translator before the choice: to imitate the original style, rely on the stylistic norms of the target language or to put everything at risk, practicing his/her own stylistic prejudice. The last two versions would naturally lead to a lot of stylistic changes.
Another thing is that some languages can have much more developed aesthetic and rhetorical patterns than other languages, which gives the translator of the translation agency more freedom to choose how to express the original message. Moreover, the range and sophistication of some literary genres may be more developed in one language than in another. Both cases are usually applicable to the translation of complex literature, such as poems, epics, religious texts, etc.
The third factor related to the role of the translator in stylistic changes relates to the national features of the source text. Both the translator and the reader are children of their generation, which shows its own character in its manner of perception and expression. And the older text the translator translates, and the culture is more pronounced in it, the question arises: how to preserve the temporary and national features of the original text and make them available for the actual perception of the current reader.
Thus, the purpose of creating of such literary works is available to the reader in the target language, which encourages the interpreter to use stylistic changes. As a rule, such changes are expected, because identity and difference relatively to the original cannot be solved without some remainder. Prior to this point, the interpreter’s dilemma becomes obvious: he/she would never try to preserve all the features of the original, but rather he/she will try to reflect his/her own identity, preserving the essence of the original message. In addition, he/she will try to use modern equivalents and understandable by his/her shrewd reader. By doing all these tasks, the translator will show most of his/her ability of translation and literary taste. Ability and literary taste are two prerequisites to create a natural translation, because the act of replacing the norms of the source language, corresponding to the norms of the target language, is a very subjective problem that requires creative intuition on the part of the translator. Again, this is due to the fact, that the direct transfer of specific stylistic characteristics from the source language to the target language is hampered by the organic nature of the components of the source text and the discrepancy between the two stylistic norms of both languages. This transfer becomes possible, only through an equivalent function, namely, by appropriate changes.
Thus, the perception of the role of the translator is that he/she is the performer of a double task. On the one hand, he/she must adhere to how he/she can to the content of the message, including its form (if it’s a part of this content), and on the other hand, he/she tries to reflect its identification data, and is inclined to produce a natural text. This trend can be achieved through a number of stylistic changes by the best way.
It can be concluded that the change should be redefined positively, as a consequence of the translator’s effort to establish the equivalence of translation between two different language systems: the source language and the target language. Psychologically, the appearance of these changes reflects the translator’s knowledge of linguistic and non-linguistic discrepancies between the source language and the target language. In this sense, changes can be defined as problem-solving strategies that are taken consciously to minimize the inevitable loss of meaning in the transmission of text from one language to another.