Variant correspondences of words
In different languages, the meanings of words have different definitions. For some new words, the basis may be the same value. Some words get new meanings and they are called – meaningful. One and the same multivalent word can be represented in different contexts and has the ability in the sentence to act in different meanings and save them outside the sentence.
If we talk about the ambiguity of words, it is worth paying attention to the difference between languages. For example, let’s take the most popular languages in the world: English and Russian. The difference between these languages, the culture of languages, tradition and speech, can be explained with the help of the comparative characteristics:
English / Russian language
The word order in the English language is practically fixed, and the semantic nuances can be expressed with the help of other words.
Great meaning in the Russian language, carries the order of words in the sentence.
As a rule, at the beginning of the sentence is the subject. Important information is always reported at the beginning of the sentence.
Many sentences begin with an addition, not with a subject. Often at the end of the sentence, important information is reported.
Present, minimal distinguishing between spoken and literary speech styles. Literary style is practically absent, distinguishing between functional styles.
A huge difference between the literary language and colloquial speech. Vocabulary and styles have great distinguishing.
The style of English speech is more calm, neutral, the transmission of emotions is reserved and measured.
The style of Russian speech is quite expressive and heavy-handed.
The meaning of words is the meaning of the context and is expressed in a number of similar, identical contexts and is assigned to the word outside the sentence. In different languages, one word value can correspond to several meanings of words.
In English there are a lot of polysemantic words. Complex words and phrases, most often have a comparison with simple words.
Every translator who works at a translation agency or independently knows that the most important task for obtaining a high-quality translation is to find the minimum translation unit in the source text. One of the most important conditions for the accuracy of translation is the precise definition of translation units. To some extent, the very notion of “unit of translation” is very conditional. LS Barkhudarov’s works contain the most complete definition of what a “translation unit” is:
“This is a unit represented in the source text, for which correspondence can be found in the translation text, but the parts that make it up do not have correspondences in the translated material.” The smallest language unit in the material in the source language, which can and will have correspondences in the material in the output language, is the translation unit. A language unit of any level can be a unit of translation.
During translation, the interpreter divides the source text into segments of different sizes, from one word to the big episode, setting the parameters of the translation unit. The word that most preserves contextual independence, the more likely it is the linguistic unit of translation. When the word is in the nearest context-dependent, the phrase or simple sentence is the unit of translation. When a word has a dependency on a certain number of contexts, then the entire source text should be the basis of the translation units.