Equivalent correspondences and terms
In the process of translating the text, from one language to another, the translation agency employee must find equivalent language correspondences. Among the available language facilities, it is necessary to find equivalent language units corresponding to the original.
Equivalence in the theory and practice of translation is understood in two ways. Most often, the concept of equivalence refers to different correspondences of words and phrases of the original in a particular context. In other words, equivalence is any correctly matched correspondence represented to the unit of translation. This interpretation of this concept, crosses out the significant discrepancy between the types of dictionary correspondences. Equivalent is an equivalent ratio, which is often independent of the context.
In the process of translation, equivalents play the role of catalysts. Speaking about interpretation, their importance is of great importance. Units of translation, which have a settled meaning in their native language, are analyzed by the translator and help him to understand the context and the whole utterance, even if there are absolutely unknown words for the translator. And if we take as an example a special translation, there equivalents often play the role of terms.
In the domestic linguistic literature, one can find a number of formulations of the very meaning of the word “term”, but the essence of the larger number in the following. A term is a word or phrase that denotes a concept that is important for a given scientific, technical, cultural or social area.
Due to the clear semantic exponent of boundaries and specificity of concepts, terms can easily be distinguished from everyday vocabulary. For a more precise expression of a thought, it is necessary to use the exact meanings of words, the term in turn does not simply strengthen the definition by a name, it clarifies it and separates it from related concepts.
A clear reflection of the systematization of concepts allows the term to perform its language functions in the best possible way. The term should express the essence of concepts, as well as remain neutral in meaning and characterized by brevity.
Within the framework of a certain sphere of knowledge, the concepts and terms that fix them have a systematized arrangement, which implies the presence of generic concepts around which species concepts are collected. The systematic nature of the terms allows us to identify the connections of concepts, increases the semantic clarity and facilitates their perception and understanding.
In terms that are formed on the basis of the native language, one can identify literal and terminological meanings. The literal meaning of a term is formed on the basis of the values of the language elements that participate in the creation of the term itself. The content of the concept that expresses the term is a terminological meaning.
Terms, the meanings of which have correspondences to each other, have the ability to express the essence of concepts. The literal and terminological meanings of terms, when consistent with each other, show fair connections between concepts.
Semantically incorrect terms include those whose literal and terminological meanings have no correspondence.
The terms, whose literal and terminological significance have contradictions to each other, are called completely unsatisfactory. They are unsatisfactory because they profane the true connections between the concepts, they do not have semantic clarity and disorient the final reader.
Every translator knows that the correct translation of terms is not an easy task. Even considering that all terms have high semantic certainty and independence, rather than everyday vocabulary, their translation can be difficult both for a beginner in the field of language services, and for an experienced professional. In order to simplify the process of translating terms, you can distinguish between them by groups and choose specific translation principles for each individual group. All terms can be divided into three groups:
Terms that denote the concepts of foreign reality, identical to the concepts of native reality.
Terms that denote the concepts of foreign reality, which are not in their native reality, while they have well-known terminology – equivalent counterparts.
Terms that denote the concepts of foreign reality, which are absent in their native reality and do not have terminologically equivalent in their native reality.
To get a correct and competent translation of the terms of the first group, it is necessary to choose terms whose meaning corresponds to foreign concepts, but denotes native concepts. To perform a qualitative translation of the second group of terms, you need to find equivalents in terms of the native language. Adequate translation for the third group of terms may be achieved by creating new terms that should fit organically into the existing terminology system.