The main periods of the history of translation and science about it. Part 1
To date, no one can tell exactly when the first transfer was made, although people use an interpreter for a long time. Most likely, this happened when two people speaking different languages needed the services of an intermediary who speaks both languages. It should be noted that until the 30s of the twentieth century, when the linguistic theory appeared, the attitude to translation was very contradictory. Some people considered the transfer to be an obligatory discipline and worked with him, some just loved the translation craft, and there were others who believed that it was impossible, referring to their beliefs.
In multinational states, the translation helped to establish interlingual and intercultural communication. Thanks to the translation craft, people could communicate, learn new teachings, religions and at the same time speak different languages.
It is worth noting that recently the notion of the definition of “culture” has changed. If earlier it meant a set of material and cultural achievements of the public, now it includes social and psychological, as well as historical features of a person’s life.
Many scientists, both domestic and foreign, in their works emphasize the importance of translation. For the development of culture, economics, science, literature and the language of communication – translation plays an important role.
In our time, a new concept of the cultural development of mankind, imposes a certain imprint on the improvement of translation. Translation has become an object of cultural studies, but it is not worthwhile to contrast them with linguistic research. Many believe that if some of the linguistic provisions are classified as culturological, with an explanation of attachment to different cultural ethnics, the problem will be solved.
Do not forget that the main role in the intercultural processes of communication and translation is played by an interpreter, a person who speaks several languages and provides that very intercultural communication. In order to ensure intercultural communication, the translator must not only perfectly master a foreign language, but also thoroughly understand the culture of the country for which the translation is being conducted. Translation – a kind of interlingual and intercultural communication.
Turning to history, it can be noted that people as entered into economic, political, military, cultural, scientific relations among themselves, and continue to do it nowadays. That leads to the influence of one language on another and contributes to the improvement of languages, their disappearance or the emergence of new dialects. A certain role in these processes is played by bilingualism and multilingualism and people who speak one or several languages.
The problems of bilingualism and the influence of languages on each other attracted the attention of scientists for a very long time. Before, it was not possible to thoroughly study these issues, since language systems and their development were not sufficiently studied. Because of the lack of information about bilingualism and multilingualism, the attitude towards them was contradictory.
Scientists, when studying these concepts, came to the conclusion that bilingualism arose in the era of the primitive communal system. Then there was a large number of intergenerational wars, captured people, had to understand the language of a new kind, while they did not forget their native language, and this allowed them to become bilingual. Already in those times, there was a need for translation from one language to another.
The need to have an interpreter for communication between peoples increased when there were state associations like Ancient Egypt, the Roman Empire, the states of Ancient Greece and others that combined multilingual peoples. At the same time, there appeared a need for a kind of translation agency , which looked like a union of several people who speak different foreign languages. A lot of wars, mixed marriages, seizure of new lands led to different forms of bilingualism. For example, you can consider the Roman Empire, with its diverse ethnic composition, where Latin predominated, which later gave rise to Romanic languages. Since conquest by the Romans of Greece, Latin-Greek bilingualism began in 146 BC. It is of particular interest, since this bilingualism has provided the whole of humanity with Greek – Latin terminology, which later became the main one in all fields of knowledge.
It can be confidently asserted that the most stable forms of bilingualism began to arise in the era of feudalism. This happened in connection with the development of new religions, which had their own language and writing.
At the heart of any bilingualism, whether French-English, Greek-Turkish, Slavic-Turkish, Czech-German, Polish-Ukrainian and many others, are wars. Because of the conquest of various lands, the greatest confusion of languages took place.
The most favorable conditions for the spread of bilingualism were in the era of capitalism. It was in those days that it became fashionable to master foreign languages. It is during this period that hybrid languages arise, which are a mixture of the local dialect with the European language.