Process of learning theory of foreign languages
Already in the last century, scientists who observe and study the development of languages, came to the conclusion that languages influence one another and mix with each other. In a book published in 1975, “The Experience of the Phonetics of the Rezian Dialects by I. Baudouin de Courtenay,” the author of which declares the mixed nature of languages, which is due to the influence of one language on another. He said: “The influence of mixing languages is manifested in two ways: on the one hand, it introduces into the language from a foreign language the elements inherent in it (word stock, syntactic phrases, forms, pronunciation); On the other hand, it is the culprit of the weakening of the degree and strength of the distinctiveness inherent in certain parts of the given language. ”
Analysis of foreign languages allows us to agree with the conclusions of domestic and foreign scientists that the result of the influence of languages on each other is the process of borrowing words and convergence, as well as the transfer of some words and meanings to another language.
When concluding international contracts and conducting negotiations, they often use the services of an interpreter. In ancient times this mission was given to interpreters who owned several, the most common languages. And today it is simply impossible to imagine an international meeting or conclusion of an international contract without the participation of an interpreter or an entire translation bureau.
Thanks to the practical activity of translators, constant new discoveries and research of scientists in the field of languages, it becomes possible to improve the theory of translation. It should not be forgotten that even today, there are different views on translation and the theory of translation in general.
In the 1930s, the foundations of the linguistic theory of translation were presented by AV Fedorov. A.V. Fedorov, in his book “On the artistic translation,” notes that an extensive philological basis contributes to the successful combination of translation theory and practice. In his opinion, the basis of the linguistic theory is the establishment of certain repetitive links and regularities by matching the characteristics of the vocabulary, grammatical construction and stylistic use of language tools, as well as the analysis of the work of an interpreter. The establishment of such correspondences is the most important principle of the linguistic theory of translation.
In this theory, A.V. Fedorov has opponents who accuse him of abstraction, among others IA. Kashkin, the creator of the “realistic theory of translation” and one of the founders of the national school of artistic translation. In his opinion, the basis of the “realistic theory of translation” lies in the study of the essence that is behind the translated text and the understanding of the so-called context. It should be noted that it is primarily about literary translation, where understanding the context allows the translator or the translation agency to fully convey the author’s thoughts. Theory AI. Kashkin is intended to a greater extent for texts with an artistic basis necessary for literary translation, it does not show signs of using linguistic features. In terms of functionality, these tools can provide only a linguistic theory of translation.
I.I. Revzin and V.Yu. Rosenzweig, the authors of the book The Basics of General and Machine Translation, also disagree with the teachings of AV Fedorov, since they claim that his theory is not exclusively linguistic, since he also uses the data of literary criticism. I.I Revzin and V.Yu. Rosenzweig reproaches AV Fedorov and his supporters for the “normativity” of his theory, and it consists in the method of analysis that allows us to examine the main purpose of the translation: the reproduction of the integrity of the form and essence of the original by means of a foreign language.
If we talk about the shortcomings of this theory, then the use of literary criticism cannot be called a flaw, it is rather a virtue. This is connected with the fact that the translation cannot be performed and understood without taking into account its genre and stylistic features. Translation is a kind of complex that includes logical thinking, psychological subtleties and lexical features, without which it cannot be correctly executed. In connection with these, it is difficult to imagine how the theory of translation can look in its pure form. Although there are some scientists who believe that such a theory exists. Among them I.I. Revzin and V.Yu. Rosenzweig, who believe that such a theory takes place, from the point of view that it does not derive from the specific arrangement of the two languages, but rather rushes to understanding translation as a natural process that lies in the essence of language communication, regardless of the wishes of the person.
Linguistic theory of translation has no connection with a specific language and is intended for all peoples at any time. This is what makes it attractive and at the same time difficult in understanding for translators, because their level of knowledge and skills varies.