Key principles of translation theory
For many professions in the modern world, knowledge of the theory plays an important role. But often there are translators who do not even realize the importance of the theory. In fact, the work of an interpreter must have, and has an extensive theoretical basis. Many translators use certain principles that are developed over many years of experience, they are, in fact, the theoretical basis of the translator’s knowledge. Let’s say an interpreter needs to translate the official speech of a high-ranking official, having common sense, he will never use youth slang for this, but will adhere to literary norms and rules of translation. Even though there are discrepancies in the speech of the speaker himself, who can switch to slang, the translator must remain unshakable. This is the concept of the normative content, which is followed by any translator in his work, he does not always understand this.
To date, many people are looking for an answer to a simple question, but does an interpreter need to know the theory of translation in pure form? The theory of translation itself was formed relatively recently and no one felt inconvenience in the work without using it. There is a misconception that the knowledge of certain techniques and the personal experience of an interpreter is sufficient to provide a qualified translation. And also, a large number of interpreter solutions are not understandable from the point of view of translation theory and can be accepted due to excellent interpreting intuition and its inspiration. But this is really confusing. In fact, the modern theory of translation shows that to solve problems and difficulties in translation, there is a fairly complex solution, but it does exist.
The very word translation has more than one definition. Even “translation from one language to another” has several interpretations:
- The result of a particular process is translation;
- The process of action from the verb “translate.”
In order to understand the translation process, it is necessary to consider it from the linguistic side, how the text is transformed from one language to another. Based on the teachings of AV Fedorov, who believed that “translation is the transmission of an oral or written text through a foreign language,” we can speak of several linguistic definitions that exist in the present translation world. The original text transmitted through another language is the result of the translation. In the dictionary of OS Ahmanova’s linguistic terms, several definitions of translation are given, which should be considered in more detail. “Translation – the transmission of information contained in a given work of speech, using another language” and “Translation – the search in another language for such means of expression that not only would provide the transfer of a variety of information contained in this speech, but also the most complete correspondence of the new text Original “.
The abbreviated narration, paraphrase and other forms of text reproduction can not be called a translation, since, first of all, the process of combining the content and form of the original takes place in translation. To convey the semantic content of the text, one must remember the logical and semantic factors that play an important role in translating from one language to another. At the same time, we should not forget about the preservation of the stylistic and expressive features of the norms of the language.
It should be noted that professional translation is a complex language activity that allows you to recreate the original text in a foreign language. Like any other profession, this activity requires a huge effort in training, certain skills and knowledge, as well as knowledge that comes only with experience. Professional activity of an interpreter or agenо translation ss to create a new text in a foreign language based on the original text, which will be considered a translation. It can be said that people working in the field of linguistic services perform the role of “converters” of texts taking into account the language peculiarity of a certain region or person. In other words, we can talk about a peculiar relationship between two units of speech, the first of which is the original one, while the second is based on the first one. When an interpreter receives a specific text, he uses certain skills and knowledge to create a text in a different language, which will have certain regular relations with the original text. These interlingual actions in their totality are called the translation process in the linguistic sense. From this it follows that the translation process can be considered a certain type of transformation, that is, the transformation of the text in one language into an equivalent text in another language with the participation of an intermediary.