Basic types of translation
In the world of linguistic services, in terms of functionality and communicability, it is customary to consider three types of translation: artistic (literary), socio-political (general) and specialized. In order to understand what each type of translation is, it is necessary to consider their classification in more detail.
In literary translation, his object is literature. The imaginative and emotional impact on the reader is a distinctive feature of the artistic work and is achieved with the help of a huge number of linguistic means, beginning with metaphors and epithets and ending with the rhythmic-syntactic construction of the phrase.
Proceeding from this, in the process of translating a literary work, in order to preserve the image-emotional impact of the original on the reader, the translator or translation agency Will strive for a thorough transfer of all the nuances of the work of art. In artistic (literary) translation, the main role is played by the reproduction of the features of the form and content of the original. Every translator who works with such material must possess not only linguistic knowledge, but also be a writer, understand the style of the work and its characteristics.
Socio-political and journalistic texts, are the object of socio-political (general) translation. For such texts, a propaganda or agitation basis is a characteristic feature. From this we can conclude that such texts should be emotionally bright and saturated profile terminology. Translators who are engaged in their translation should have a creative approach to the construction of the text, understand the profile terminology and be able to make the output text not just readable, but unforgettable. This type of translation combines the features of artistic translation and special. Using the skills of working with different types of translation, you can get an adequate socio-political translation.
Scientific, technical and tests of narrow specialization are the object of special translation. It distinguishes all these texts, from the others, the most accurate expression of a thought that is not possible without using a huge amount of profile terminology. In a modern, constantly evolving world, it is physically difficult for a person to learn all the newest terminology that occurs in scientific and technical texts. This applies to translators working with scientific and technical texts, they tend to specialize in a particular industry. Each of them, in addition to a thorough knowledge of a foreign language, must constantly maintain and improve the level of knowledge in their field of science or technology with the help of specialized publications, attending lectures of specialists in the field of work, etc.
Each of these types of translation can be performed in several ways, it can be oral consecutive interpreting, simultaneous translation, translation or machine translation. There is one more kind of translation, which is not so common in everyday life and which is worth analyzing in more detail – this is a special type of text processing for translation.
In the practice of an interpreter, it sometimes becomes necessary not only to translate, but also to process the text itself. In the research of modern scientists, it is believed that when the text is not only translated, but also processed in passing, this is not a fact of translation, but more like the fact of linguistic mediation. Referencing, retelling and other adapted translations are related to linguistic mediation. If the text is amenable to one of these ways of processing, then it really will be different. In this case, if the text is retold with the help of another language, then it is already a question of translation in its various manifestations.
When translating, different types of word processing are distinguished depending on their semantic tasks. The style of the text, the complexity of the information, the information richness, all this can be affected during the processing of the text.
First and foremost, processing means adapting the text to the level of the reader’s competence, this means creating a text that the end reader will be able to understand independently, without outside consultation and assistance. When translating and processing text, special terminology is replaced by a common language, or explained by an interpreter throughout the text with the help of normative vocabulary. When processing, the text is simplified, the volume of sentences becomes smaller. There is also stylistic processing, when the source text is not perfect and the customer of the translation wants to improve it. In this case, the translator does not just perform the translation, but also corrects the text, restores stylistic unity, aligns the logical content and corrects all errors that the author has made.