Basic concepts of translation theory
The main task of the general theory of translation is the creation of a theoretical model of translation that would show general concepts of equivalence and the basis for the appearance of translation. In translation, for all its history, there have been a large number of attempts to create certain generalizations and rules of translation. All this was usually presented in the form of principles and requirements for the translation process. Formed principles based on the practice of an interpreter and included repetitive aspects of practice and were not based on any theoretical model of translation. Various scientists and authors of the works, made their suggestions regarding the translation process. If all these proposals are combined, then we get an interesting list in which some principles contradict each other:
- Translation – transfer of words of the original.
- Translation – conveying the meaning of the original.
- The translation must be read as the original.
- The translation should be read as a translation.
- The style of the original must be reflected in the translation.
- The translation should reflect the style of the translator.
- Additions and reductions can be in the translation.
- Additions and reductions cannot be used for translation.
- Translation of poems must be done in prose.
- Translation of poems must be performed only in a poetic form.
In the derivation of empirical rules of translation, there was no single theoretical basis, which led to the emergence of ridiculous situations and funny cases in the translation process. It is because of this that the most important task for linguists was the development of theoretical models of translation. Based on different concepts, linguists have developed several translation models.
The process of transforming a text or speech work into another language with the preservation of meaning and content is called translation. This was the basis of the semantic-semiotic model of translation, proposed by LS Barkhudarov.
Semantics, as a science, studies the meanings of linguistic units such as words, morphemes, syntactic constructions, intonations, and also studies the laws of constructing a semantic sentence, which consists of these simple units.
To fully understand the meaning of speech or text, it is not enough to know only the language in which it is presented. It is necessary to possess additional information, understand the purpose and nature of the author, cultural differences, historical features, laws of thinking, etc.
Of course, neither linguistics nor semantics can cover all these aspects in general. Semantics does not study the full, but only the literal meaning of the text, for understanding which only knowledge of the language is sufficient.
To better understand what semantics is, you need to understand the language of a person. A person who is fluent in a foreign language can:
– to construct semantic proposals in a foreign language and to perceive the meaning of statements from other people;
– understand synonymy and homonymy of sentences;
– to understand the semantic connection and the differences in the sentences.
It is the science of semantics that provides a theoretical explanation of these abilities, namely, it outlines the rules of the language that enable you to perform the listed operations. Interpretation of all values of units of language is one of the main tasks of semantics. Among the linguistic units are words, morphemes, intonations and syntactic constructions.
Semiotics, as a science, studies various systems of signs and their structure, functionality and development. This science of how in modern society, people participate in the process of communicating with each other, with the help of what language means information can be transmitted, how these tools are arranged, how and where they are applied and what changes can be exposed.
From any communication, you can make a definite sense and certain means by which this meaning is conveyed. If we decompose this meaning into separate elements and understand what means each of them expresses, then signs will appear before the researcher. Signs are a kind of concatenation of a certain meaning and a peculiar way of expressing it, namely the signifier and the signified. The totality of these signs is a semiotic system. Linguistics and semiotics are very closely related and interact with each other, because language is one of the main semiotic systems.
Every translator who works independently or in the translation agency should understand the semiotic system not only in the native language, but also in the Foreign. This affects the quality of the translated material and its perception by the reader or listener. Regardless of language, the system of language values reflects the entire outer and inner world of a person with all cultural and emotional components.